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Open woods, particularly along edges. Will grow in part shade or sun. In some parts of its range it seems to associate with the disturbance provided by floodplains
In the U.S. from SD south to KS, east to SC and all states north except ME.
Herbaceous perennial to 2 m tall. Stems four-angled, smooth to densely pubescent. Leaves opposite, to 13 cm long, on long petioles, deeply serrate, rounded to cordate at base, Flowers in terminal racemes to 15 cm long; corollas pale to deep purple; calyx lobes mostly over 2 mm long, acute or acuminate, often purplish
Flowers late to July to October
Wetland Indicator: Upland
This plant would make a good replacement for purple loosestrife. It appears to be rare throughout much of its range, but given that this plant likes disturbance it would likely thrive under cultivation. The leaves give off a licorice scent when crushed.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
USDA, NRCS. 2002.
The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov).
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA
© Michael Hough 2004