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Sandy or rocky soil. Black oak savanna. Common on dunes along Lake Michigan.
On dunes with Andropogon scoparius, Arabis lyrata, Artemesia caudata, Juniperus communis, Juniperus horizontalis, Opuntia humifusia, Prunus pumila
Circumboreal; in North America from Labrador west to AK, south to VA, northern IN, IL, NM, and CA.
Mat-forming evergreen shrub. Leaves entire, leathery, shiny dark green, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate. Flowers bell-shaped, white to tinged pink, 4-6 mm. Fruit a bright red, dry or mealy, inedible berry
Flower April to June
Wetland Indicator: Upland
Also known as Kinnikinnick. Endangered in several states and extirpated from OH and PA.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
USDA, NRCS. 2002.
The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov).
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA
© Michael Hough 2004