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Quiet water of lakes, streams, and ditches. Moderately tolerant of habitat degradation.
Quebec west to British Columbia, south to NC, AL, AR, and CA.
Submerged aquatic. Leaves all cauline, flaccid, pale, relatively soft, sessile, slender, minutely and sharply serrate, 1-nerved, whorled, averaging 2 mm, the upper closely imbricate. Flowers elevated on a slender, pedicel-like hypanthium; staminate spathes over 6 mm long, separating and floating at anthesis.
Flowers July to September
Wetland indicator: Obligate
Used in introductory biology classes to demonstrate photosynthesis (oxygen production and carbon sequestration). Also useful for aquariums and water gardens.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2009