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Disturbed sandy soils. Sandy black oak savanna, especially where trees are sparse and scrubby.
MI, west to MN, IA, IL, IN, and irregularly to AR, KY, NK, and NY.
Biennial, 4-10 tall. Leaves linear to lanceolate or linear-oblong, entire or obscurely denticulate, short hairy above and below. Flowers numerous in a terminal spike 10-30 cm long, with leafy bracts; hypanthium sparsely strigose; petals yellow, broadly elliptic or ovate, acute; sepals linear, reflexed. Fruit linear, curved; seeds dark brown, obscurely pitted.
Flowers late June to late October.
Wetland indicator: Upland
* W. Dietr., P. H. Raven, & W. L. Wagner
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2005